The low affinity of many analytes to noble metal surfaces often limits their capacity to be detected by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). To enhance surface affinity and improve reproducibility we have produced a nanocomposite consisting of a bacterial cellulose support matrix that is embedded with either gold or silver nanoparticles. By restraining the SERS enabling nanoparticles within this matrix we minimize the uncontrolled nanoparticle aggregation that is often responsible for the lack of reproducibility and quantitatively detect a broad range of analytes. The entire sampling process can be finished within 1 minute and does not require any pre-concentration steps. Considering its low cost nature and straightforward synthesis, this material shows huge potential for real-world application.